After the completion of the task and submitting a report, the ad hoc committee is dissolved. Yet the value of other forms of communication is often overlooked. Citation Machine® helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Importance of organizational communication 7. Management Research Library The top resource for free Management research, white papers, reports, case studies, magazines, and eBooks. The Organizational Communication program explores effective and participatory communication across business and organizational settings. The first is one of identification. William And Harry Have A Secret Stepsister - But There's A Good Reason Why She's Kept Hidden - Duration: 13:37. Introduction Organizational development has certain factors that improve sustainability on basis of effectiveness. However, for Airbus CEO Christian Streiff, it was just a brief window before his. Organizational communication means communication among people in an organization. It is the best way for top management to analyze the efficiency of downward communication and organizational communication in general (Miljkovi ć, Rijavec, 2008). Organizational communication refers to the forms and channels of communication among members of organizations such as corporations, nonprofits or small businesses. Successful companies communicate the overall strategy so every person in the organization understands his or her role. Types of communication include verbal, written, and nonverbal. Present an organizational breakup for the proper communication of your business with this Communication Process PowerPoint Template. Organizational Communication What are we talking about? Communication that takes place within the context of an organization Organizational Communication is: the ways in which groups of people maintain structure and order through their symbolic interactions and allow individual actors the freedom to accomplish their goals What is Structuration?. 2NWANKWO, Precious Ngozi & 3OKONKWO, Rita Ifeoma 1-2Dept. These online writing classes for elementary, middle school, and high school students, break down the writing process into manageable chunks, easily digested by young writers. People fear the consequences of not doing what has been asked of them. STAR NEWS 365 Recommended for you. It can help with rumor control. There are numerous types of carrier technologies. Types of Organizational communication networks : Chain Network:- Communication flows according to the formal chain of command. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throws light upon the five types of design of communication networks. Interpersonal communication refers to one-on-one or small group interactions. One is satellite method and another one is terrestrial method. Decoding 4. There are Five Types of Communication. Motivational communication is a type of clarification method for employees to understand what they have to do in the organization. professional settings. The simplest type of problem is relatively isolated. Divisional Structure These types of organizations divide the functional areas of the organization to divisions. This type of interaction has the sole purpose of improving the organizational practices, reducing the errors and providing a clear guidance, for the team members. Introduction to Management and Leadership Concepts, Principles, and Practices ing. No group activity is possible without communication. Immediate crisis – often of the natural disaster or major emergency type (earthquakes, etc. Types of Grapevine. They are usually created by using MS office, MS excel and Power Point. It identifies each job, its function and where it reports to within the organization. The structure of the legacy organization, composed of over 2,200 employees under a traditional command-and-control model, was not right for the new venture. Managing Change Enhancing organizational Agility. When you were hungry you cried and your mother understood that and gave you milk. The APA Center for Organizational Excellence is a public education initiative from the American Psychological Association designed to educate the employer community about the link between employee health and well-being and organizational performance. It takes place at different levels -- downwards, upwards and horizontal. The originally accepted work was published in MISQ Discovery in 1997 and is available in the MISQ Discovery archive. These practitioners often operate out of the human resources area and may report directly to the president of the organization. Citation Machine® helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. A helpful tool to clearly draw a picture of reporting relationships within an organization is called an organizational chart. The business type of communication can be considered a common language for any company, no matter its area of expertise. 42 Table 10. Organizational Communication. Teamwork and interactions exemplify lateral or horizontal efforts to communicate. THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATIONS. Internal Communication. Organizational Communication Theories under the Sociocultural Tradition. This article discusses the types of communications between people and teams. Leadership. Regardless of the type of organization, communication is the element that maintains and sustains relationships in it. Verbal communication is made up not only of the words we speak. It identifies each job, its function and where it reports to within the organization. 14 Examples of Communication Channels posted by John Spacey , September 02, 2017 A communication channel is a means of communication that is available to an organization or individual. Different communication channels are more or less effective at transmitting different kinds of information. These studies are divided into two groups: (a) the effect of national culture on IT (Eindor, Segev, and Orvad, 1993; Neko, 1990; Straub, 1994) and (b) the effect of organizational culture on IT (Burkhardt, 1994; Burkhardt and Grass, 1990; Cooper, 1994; Grote and Baitsch, 1991; Pliskin et al. Why study Organizational Communication? 1) Org comm provides the basis for understanding virtually every human process that occurs in organizations. Types of Organizational Culture. They are familiar with the organization's culture and norms. Amit Kumar Singh, IILalropuii I,IIAssistant Professor, Dept. For Project Managers, a company's organizational structure type will affect how resources are allocated to the project and will be a factor in how much influence the Project Manager will have within the organization. POOR CHOICE, USE OF CHANNELS When to use certain channel Oral alone: Simple reprimand Settle simple dispute Written alone: Don't need immediate feedback Need record COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION 2. Which organizational form is most appropriate can be influenced by tax issues, legal issues, financial concerns, and personal concerns. The APA Center for Organizational Excellence is a public education initiative from the American Psychological Association designed to educate the employer community about the link between employee health and well-being and organizational performance. Modes of Communication ∗ Mathias Dewatripont † and Jean Tirole‡ December 7, 2004 Abstract The paper develops a theory of communication in which the sender’s and receiver’s mo-tivations and abilities to communicate and process information endogenously determine the communication mode and the transfer of knowledge. You may have seen someone push buttons on a computer that speaks for them. It helps personal reflection and organisation. This ranges from regular telephone service, one of the most basic forms of communication, to optical carrier (OCx) levels up to OC-48. Organizational activity is the bloodstream of an organization, and all activities end when communication falters. Understanding Organizational Culture. Six Leadership Communication Skills: What Leaders Need to Lead One can’t lead if you can’t communicate. Organizational communication is an objective-goal derivative of organization. At the end of this session, participants should be able to understand and appreciate: 1. There are two types of. There is also a notable correlation between how powerful a leader believes he or she is at work and that leader's level in the organization. The idea, no matter however brilliant it is, must come out for its successful implementation for it to benefit one and all. Apart from free org chart templates, a powerful and easy-to-use Orgcharting software like Edraw Orgcharting can also be of great help for users to create a professional organizational chart. to Wikipedia, organizational conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests between formal authority and power and those individuals and groups affected. The knowledge acquired through this study is utilized for the smooth functioning of the organization as a whole. The different models in the family had different performances (and prices) and, as a result, different. The Organizational Communication program explores effective and participatory communication across business and organizational settings. Technology may be used for e-mails or a linked internal communication. Principle of attention, i. These include the most common org chart structure types plus the various org chart models derived from the main ones. Communication Barrier #1 Lack of Enthusiasm. There are four types of organizational communication: formal and informal communication, directional communication, internal and external communication and oral and written communication. All of these terms refer to some type of cross-functional organization because they invariably involve bringing people together from two or more usually separated organizational functional areas to undertake a task on either a temporary basis (as in a project team) or on a. Organizational Development (OD) is a field of research, theory, and practice dedicated to expanding the knowledge and effectiveness of people to accomplish more successful organizational change and performance. The individuals can misuse the power in the organization that would affect the overall performance of the organization, and is considered as the main disadvantage of power. The process can be understood as a combination of process, people, message, meaning and purpose. In an organization, whenever we put two people together in a relationship they each bring divergent values, beliefs, expectations, goals, personality type, communication styles and feelings. When it comes to communication in the workplace, it is important to understand the significance of non-verbal communication four types communication. save Save 26196238 Flow of Communication For Later. Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Capstones. Immediate crisis – often of the natural disaster or major emergency type (earthquakes, etc. 2014 ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online) ISSN : 2348-893X (Print) Role of Interpersonal Communication in Organizational Effectiveness IDr. While every meeting is distinctive, being aware of the 6 most common types of business meetings in organization will help you better identify the objectives, structure, and the activities best suitable for your meetings. It has the qualities of both the functional and projectized organizational structure and will support your operations and help achieve the organization's objectives. Motivational communication is a type of clarification method for employees to understand what they have to do in the organization. Studies have found a strong. among the people to reach a common understanding. The way in which. BASIC COMMUNICATION MODEL According to Adler and Towne (1978), all that ever has been accomplished by humans and all that ever will be accomplished involves communication with others. The executive's main organizational function is to act as a channel of communication and maintain organizational operations. But what your culture consists of - goals, values, and practices - must be effectively transmitted according to best practices if employees are going to understand and act upon it. It is mostly strict and bound to rules. Formal Organization needs 5 things § 3 types of communication Verbal Communication ® Talking § Non verbal communication Email, Memos , body language § Create levels or authority § Channels or command § clarify who gives orders/ obeys orders § who does what type of work! § Goals can often conflict with each other. This toolkit reviews the basics of effective organizational communication, the importance of a communication strategy, the role of different communicators within the organization, types of. At the end of this session, participants should be able to understand and appreciate: 1. Successful companies communicate the overall strategy so every person in the organization understands his or her role. Organizational communication means communication among people in an organization. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE Brindusa Maria POPA Junior Lecturer, Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania Successful organizations are the result of effective leadership and organizational culture. News and Updates Stay current on all things related to your professional association, from book releases to policy updates. The service department. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus. We believe that smart public policy and inspired public leadership can make people’s lives safer, freer, and more prosperous. Effective communication. The APA Center for Organizational Excellence is a public education initiative from the American Psychological Association designed to educate the employer community about the link between employee health and well-being and organizational performance. You probablyhavemanytoname,suchasthecompanywhereyouwork,aschool,. There are four types of organizational communication: formal and informal communication, directional communication, internal and external communication and oral and written communication. 4 Intra-organizational Communication Communication is not a cost item for an organization, but an investment. Internal communication is not an end in itself. Add to this the boundless opportunities the internet superhighway offers, and you have an absolute goldmine of communication possibilities!. Three level pyramid model based on the type of decisions taken at different levels in the organization. However, when a brand wants to communicate with their customers, then the communication takes another form. Since communicating is not optional, the opening of communication channels in order for the information to flow in the right directions is critical for the organization’s performance as well as the morale of employees (Sinickas 2001). As a working. Effective communication in an organization is always important. among the people to reach a common understanding. Healthcare managers and adminis- trators still need to deal with issues such as motivating staff, managing conflict, team-building, etc. The last type of evidence is called analogical evidence. In an organization, whenever we put two people together in a relationship they each bring divergent values, beliefs, expectations, goals, personality type, communication styles and feelings. 0 Up votes, mark as useful. Gone are those days when you could talk to somebody only when the person is present at his/her house. Program Administrator Definition The program administrator is the individual responsible for planning, implementing, and evaluating an early care and education program. Intended meaning 2. In organizations, managers need to be skilled both at his job and communicative ability since the lack of the latter will …. organizational culture is a slippery concept to concretely define. ADVANTAGES OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN AN ORGANIZATION Speeds the sending of information : Communication technology tools like electronic mail and text messaging systems, speed up the sending of information with in and out side of the organization. Organizational activity is the bloodstream of an organization, and all activities end when communication falters. Following principles should be followed in order to make the communication effective : 1. They isolated four "ideal types" of organization environment. Business Communication is any communication used to promote a product, service, or organization - with the objective of making sale. " Organization is the process of dividing up of the activities. Your courses will focus on both theory and practice. Mastering both types of verbal communication allows you to more effectively deliver your. Organizational Communication: In the beginning A considerable part of what we today deem organizational communication research is an attempt to explain how a large number of humans can function together as a machine. Symbolic thinking and reasoning is an incredibly efficient process. Teamwork and interactions exemplify lateral or horizontal efforts to communicate. Learning Objectives. The organizational structure selects how the processes and presentations of the organization can carry. On the other hand, personal decisions are those which an executive takes in his individual capacity but not as a member of organization. Conboy said “Horizontal communication is the exchanges between and among agencies and personnel on the same level of the organization chart. Organizations have a variety of formal and informal objectives to accomplish. Written By: Organizational analysis, in management science, the study of the processes that characterize all kinds of organizations, including business firms, government agencies, labour unions, and voluntary associations such as sports clubs, charities, and political parties. Organizational structures can be tall, in the sense that there are a number of tiers between entry-level employees and the leaders of the company. In that year, IBM released its system/360, the first family of computers. Placing interventions can lead to a better understanding of each other’s. Motivational communication is a type of clarification method for employees to understand what they have to do in the organization. Communication Styles. Such a communication is that which is associated with the formal organisation structure and the official status or the position of the communicator and the receiver. This usually includes advertising departments, public relations/publicity, direct marketing teams and sponsors. It is an official communication which takes place through the line of authority or chain of command. Smith, personal communication, January 3, 2012) OR J. Organization definition is - the act or process of organizing or of being organized. There is no way that an organization can function well with the outside world if it does not have a sound plan for how to inform the public of what they do. The structure of the legacy organization, composed of over 2,200 employees under a traditional command-and-control model, was not right for the new venture. Personal issues explained. Communication context will, for example, be different for a television broadcaster than for a. By Tim Lambert. The matrix organization structure usually exists in large and multi-project organizations. A helpful tool to clearly draw a picture of reporting relationships within an organization is called an organizational chart. PowerPoints are a great visual resource to use with your students. essential component of organizational success whether it is at the interpersonal, intergroup,. Richmond, McCroskey, & McCroskey (2005). (BDI) is to provide innovative educational programs to nursing students and other medical professionals so they can provide high quality medical care to pa Read more Bridging the Gap Between the. Communication is a very important part of any organization. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throws light upon the five types of design of communication networks. Organizational Development Theory. PowerPoints are a great visual resource to use with your students. Cite personal communications within the body of your paper only. among the people to reach a common understanding. tex] Job No: 5023 Buchanan: Power, Politics and Organizational Change Page: xiii 1–xxv ILLUSTRATIONS xiii Table 4. Become an organizational or corporate partner to inspire early childhood education at the local and national level. Based on the identification of the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument. It arises due to the co-existence of people. Barriers to communication causes different misunderstanding, misconceptions, confusion and overall miscommunication. relate organization performance and culture to each other as they help in providing competitive advantage to firms. organizational communication meaning: the way in which an organization gives the public and its employees information about its aims and…. types and forms of communication Having understood elements of communication, their functions and placement in various models, it is time to complete an other chapter on types and forms of communication before resuming our discussions on. among the people to reach a common understanding. Karen Green, manager of communication and outreach at the Renaissance Computing Institute at UNC, says it’s about having a plan, not “simply reacting and responding. Cause and Effect. The simplest form of power is that vested in the position of 'manager'. Perceived meaning Sender 5. 2 The Machiavellian pragmatist 122 Table 4. These structures are hierarchical and, in most cases, centralized. External communication includes those communications between organizational members and external parties such as customers, manufacturers, shareholders, investors and the general public. In the 1950s, organizational communication focused largely on the role of communication in improving organizational life and organizational output. The use of grapevine varies from place to place and from person to person. Organizational analysis. News and Updates Stay current on all things related to your professional association, from book releases to policy updates. Terms, such as single-use plans, continuing plans, policy. Organizational Communication for Survival: Making Work, Work. PLATFORMS AND PORTALS. organization. A Communication Process, or Communications Management Process, is a set of steps that needs to be adopted for every project in an organization. Case Study 1 – Organization Structure. Internal communication plays a vital role in the efficient performance of office operations. Besides that , the style of communication in the effectiveness of communication in organization is also influence it. Scientific research on nonverbal communication and behavior began with the 1872 publication of Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Yet such metadata wouldn’t work if programmers worldwide weren’t using a common, universal metadata language. The formal reports are classified into two types. Verbal communication is made up not only of the words we speak. Communication in organization is one of the biggest challenges today. The process can be understood as a combination of process, people, message, meaning and purpose. Communication Types and How to Improve Each One. They also embed the cur-rent organizational categories into the design. Try it today. Organization-wide change is a large-scale transformation that affects the overall structure of the company. THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATIONS. Defining Organizational Communication How one defines organizational communication depends on one's view of the relationship between commu-nicating and organizing. Here are 5 often overlooked types of departments in a company’s organizational structure and how they function together to bring a product to market… 1. Types of Communication Behaviors. Internal Communication. 2 The Machiavellian pragmatist 122 Table 4. Type 1: Docile, isolated problems. Surprisingly, 55% of face-to-face communication comes from nonverbal cues such as tone or body language. The literature we review offers perspectives from a variety of disciplines and insights into the role of culture in communication processes. PASSIVE COMMUNICATION is a style in which individuals have developed a pattern of avoiding expressing their opinions or feelings, protecting their rights, and identifying and meeting their needs. It is related to meaning of the message which is affected by human perception. All these functions are vital to a successful organization. Depending on the organizational values and the nature of the business, organizations tend to adopt one of the following structures for management purposes. For example, theories of interpersonal communication address the communication between dyads (two people). TYPES OF AUTHORITY: 3 main types of authority can exist within an organization: Line Authority; Staff Authority; Functional Authority. Though grapevine provides innumerable utilities to the organization, still it is not free from defects. Organizational communication, or the sharing of organizational information, remains a vital and critical tool when trying to create and maintain a competitive advantage. Types of Organizational Structures. They are usually created by using MS office, MS excel and Power Point. For example, an ad hoc committee could be formed by the management of an organization to investigate into the causes of a particular problem bedeviling the organization. Encoding Receiver 7. For example, an ENFJ will. Concept of communication and communicating a message as two head shaped trees with birds flying as a metaphor for teamwork and business or personal relationship with 3D illustration elements. There are various types of interpersonal communication in existence, and this article explains some of the main types. Leaders are seen as innovators and risk takers. News and Updates Stay current on all things related to your professional association, from book releases to policy updates. This article provides an overview of the popular theories of organizational communication. Changing the agility of individuals and groups in the organization. Effective communication in an organization is always important. There is no way that an organization can function well with the outside world if it does not have a sound plan for how to inform the public of what they do. • Most current idealized communication models do not grant the channel of communication full status as a participant in the communication process. Communication freezers put an end to effective communication by making the receiver feel judged or defensive. Seek to answer why an individual or a group of individuals did something. Communication is more than the words we speak. Time4Writing essay writing courses offer a highly effective way to learn how to write the types of essays required for school, standardized tests, and college applications. They are statutory report and non-statutory report. ) In a broad but true sense, consideration underlies the other six C's of good business communication. HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS. The Organizational Communication program explores effective and participatory communication across business and organizational settings. High differentiation of tasks Because tasks are often changing, tasks may need to be differentiated, so specialists, each responsible for one or few tasks, are able to respond quickly. Spaho: Organizational communication and conflict management 105 on the lower levels. It identifies each job, its function and where it reports to within the organization. Types of Organizational Communication Part 1; Communication's Link to Collaboration Part 2; Organizational Communication Impact Part 3. Organizational communication is an integral part of effective management practices within the workplace: productive and thoughtful dialogue can make or break an organization and the relationships within it. The User as a Creative Outlet Design covers a wide range of activities. Faculty research and teaching employ multi-level, multi-method analyses of organizing across work, community, and social change contexts, with a sustained focus on. Brenda has a Master of Arts degree in Organizational Communication and Professional Development. A Communication Process, or Communications Management Process, is a set of steps that needs to be adopted for every project in an organization. Such a communication is that which is associated with the formal organisation structure and the official status or the position of the communicator and the receiver. Sole proprietorship organization is a form of business owned by a single individual. Majority of committees in business organizations and other places are ad hoc types. Vector illustration of a communication concept. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Communication Page 35 Levels of Communication Scholars categorize different levels and types of communication. Management Research Library The top resource for free Management research, white papers, reports, case studies, magazines, and eBooks. Diagonal communication is an even more recent emphasis in the organizational communication literature. Learning Activity 1 Powerpoint (Schein and Nguyen readings) (PPT) Learning Activity 1 Powerpoint (Schein and Nguyen readings) (PDF) Kurt Lewin's Change Theory in the Field and in the Classroom: Notes toward a model of managed learning. the crucial nature of communication in aviation safety. In order for businesses to win market share and stay relevant they need to consider many types of marketing strategies. People fear the consequences of not doing what has been asked of them. A manager has subordinates who must do his or her bidding, only within legal and organizational rules. The five structures are basic organizational structures, which are then adapted to an organization's needs. organizational level. You can use these Communication PPT in Your Projects and presentations. Young (1994) made this connection when she indicated that: “The overall objective is to prevent accidents through improved communication in air carrier operations, and keep safety at the highest possible level” (p. The fact is that some chief executives are brilliant organizational leaders but not very effective in-person communicators. 3 Types of Informal Communication posted by John Spacey , September 06, 2017 Informal communication is information exchange that occurs outside of the official communication processes of an organization such as events, meetings, formal messages and documentation. Choosing a theory for an assignment or report is made easier, since you are able to ‘browse’ through the different theories. Learn more about the history of the organization and our methodology to help maximize your potential! Learn More. Formal interaction in the workplace takes place in a framework of authority and rules, some of them unspoken. Based on the identification of the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument. One way to categorize the different types of computer network designs is by their scope or scale. All these functions are vital to a successful organization. Microwave wireless communication is an effective type of communication, mainly this transmission uses radio waves, and the wavelengths of radio waves are measured in centimeters. oral-wich means spken words 2. Type 1: Docile, isolated problems. Coordinating efforts between colleagues or employees of equal rank and authority represent this channel of communication. He understands how it affects business communication. Effective communication is crucial for the success of an organization. Diagonal or Cross-wise! Formal communication is designed by the management. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. They are the communication links in work teams according to the organizational structures. Immigration is daunting enough. The various types of feedback range from direct verbal statements, to subtle facial expressions or changes in posture which might point to the sender that. These presentation slides comprehensively cover key types of marketing strategy: from market strategy, product strategy, promotion strategy, to pricing strategy. "The intrapersonal level refers to the processing of information on an individual basis. Communication is more than just our ability to talk, but also to listen. But work involves more than the use of tools and techniques. The third chapter is an outline of the micro- organizational behavior. Communications Satellites: Making the Global Village Possible. Different communication channels are more or less effective at transmitting different kinds of information. Understanding Organizational Culture. Many social and organizational problems derive from unsatisfactory relationships brought about by inadequate communication between people. In contrast, in our model, the channel incorporates full. Interpersonal communication refers to one-on-one or small group interactions. ” What does this mean to you. This distinction leads to four subcategories within each of the four basic business models for a total of 16 specialized business model types. save Save 26196238 Flow of Communication For Later. Besides that , the style of communication in the effectiveness of communication in organization is also influence it. There are two types of business communication in an organization, which come under "Vertical Communication" 1. When this occurs, it means that a physical manner of communication is being used to share ideas and meanings among others. A communication may pass through various points or positions in an organization. How to use organization in a sentence. Diagonal communication: This type of communication involves the sharing or transmitting of information among people at different levels within the organization. Intended meaning 6. It may not be long until a relatively unknown person uses the Internet to win enough support to be elected president of the United States. Informal communication, Unlike formal communication, doesn't follow authority lines. These structures are hierarchical and, in most cases, centralized. Types of communication explained. Communication is a very basic and fundamental process for human beings. Additional findings. It can help with rumor control. [18:00 1/10/2007 5023-Buchanan-FM. PASSIVE COMMUNICATION is a style in which individuals have developed a pattern of avoiding expressing their opinions or feelings, protecting their rights, and identifying and meeting their needs. Types of Communication Based on Style and Purpose. Faculty research and teaching employ multi-level, multi-method analyses of organizing across work, community, and social change contexts, with a sustained focus on. Technology may be used for e-mails or a linked internal communication. As you can see, there are at least 6 distinct types of communication: non-verbal, verbal-oral-face-to-face, verbal-oral-distance, verbal-written, formal and informal types of communication. International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014) Vol. There are three basic types of organizational structures Functional Organizational Structure. The term specialization is related to work and employees. The pyramid-shaped organizational chart we referred to earlier is known as a hierarchical org chart. 1 What Is Organization Development? T hinkforamomentabouttheorganizationstowhichyoubelong. Perceived meaning Sender 5. Communication technologies are a set of receptions, procedures of means and methods that are used in the process of communication influence by a subject of communication in order to achieve the set goals and objectives.